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A-Level Science Practicals. Physics , Chemistry & Biology will start from Tuesday (15th September 2020).

AS
& A-Level Science Practical’s will start from Tuesday (15th September
2020) at 

GreenHall Academy Gulberg Campus.

Physics

What
are the practical skills required for physics and why do you need
them?

The practical skills
involved are:


manipulation, measurement and observation, the collection of simple data to an
appropriate accuracy, choosing the right range and distribution of values


presentation of data and observations in a table


analysis, conclusions and evaluation, using and justifying the correct number
of significant figures


plotting of a graph and calculation of a gradient. In the second paper this
involves the use of logarithms and plotting error bars on graphs


estimating the uncertainties in measurements made and identifying the most
significant sources of uncertainty


calculating the uncertainty in the value of a calculated quantity made from two
or more measurements each with their own uncertainty


evaluation of the method involved and suggesting improvements


planning an experiment, including identifying dependent and independent
variables and quantities that remain constant, identifying any risks involved

Developing practical skills
prepares students for studies beyond A Level in physics, engineering or in
physics-dependent vocational courses. Practical’s also help students
develop abilities and skills that are useful in everyday life and encourage
safe practice. These practical skills help to develop attitudes such
as a concern for accuracy and precision, initiative, inventiveness and a spirit
of enquiry.

These
skills are important in employment and go far beyond mere knowledge of facts. A
good practical course also helps to develop an interest in the
subject of physics itself and complements the study of the theory, showing that
scientific theory is ultimately grounded by experiment. The amount of practical apparatus
required does not have to be enormous because working within the resources
available is another useful ability. It’s important to remember that students
can learn a lot from practical work that goes wrong as well as
from experiments that work perfectly every time.

What
are the main challenges for students carrying out practical work?

Many
students at A Level may not have had much experience of practical work
and may not consider themselves to be very ‘practical’, but there is no need to
be afraid of simple experiments. Students need practice in setting up simple
apparatus  and to be happy in carrying out the experiment by themselves.
When a student has enough experience of simple apparatus then they face the
challenge of writing a method where they must choose the apparatus and method
for themselves. This might be for an experiment that differs from any that they
have previously seen and shows their inventiveness and initiative.

Students
may also believe practical work to be a mathematical exercise where
there is a right and a wrong answer. This is not the case. Every reading has an
inherent uncertainty and students need to be happy to estimate uncertainties in
simple quantities, such as the measurement of length and time by either
repeating readings or taking the smallest scale reading on the instrument used.
They also need to realize that the uncertainty is only an estimate and is
itself not exactly known.

There
are a few mathematical challenges, particularly for those not studying
mathematics at A Level. These include the use of logarithms and combining
uncertainties, where a real familiarity with percentages is a useful skill.
However, the average student can learn the necessary skills with a reasonable
amount of application.

What
are your 5 top tips for students for practical work ?

1)
Think actively about every topic. Do you understand what is going on? If not,
then ask a question.

2)
Know how to estimate uncertainty as the smallest scale division or, better,
half the range in the readings.

3)
After every experiment write down:


the steps that you actually took during the experiment

– whether each quantity was dependent, independent or kept constant

– major difficulties

– improvements

4)
Realize that readings in a table are measured, usually, to the same precision,
i.e. to the same number of decimal places, but that calculated quantities
should be given to the smallest number of significant figures in the quantities
used in the calculation.

5)
Take care when plotting graphs.


does your graph cover half the page horizontally and vertically?

– does it have units on both axes?

– check your points are accurate

– use a long ruler when drawing a straight line

– show your working in finding the gradient

Chemistry

 

5
tips for students by GreenHall Academy

1)
Remember that practical work is important; it is a component of your
examinations. Therefore, make the most of whatever practical experience
that you are given and don’t think of it as relaxation time away from theory
work.

2)
Remember that practical work is related to the rest of the syllabus.
If you are not sure why you are doing the practical – ask your
teacher to explain. When you are told that you will be doing a practical investigation,
write down what you think are the aims of the practical work and what
you hope to get from it.

3)
If you have a practical partner, then agree responsibilities. For
example, if you are measuring the rate of a reaction by following the change in
the volume of gas produced, one of you can measure the time and help countdown
to the next reading, while your partner can read the volume.

4)
If you are going to do an assessed practical, then ask your teacher what
criteria she or he is going to use when allocating the marks.

5)
Try and maintain a good balance between your awareness of safety and a
confident use of the apparatus. You should by now know how to use a Bunsen
burner safely and the difference between gentle heating and strong heating,
even some advanced level students think that gentle heating involves a yellow
Bunsen burner flame. The practical workbook has
a chapter on basic techniques. If this textbook is available, then take a look
at this chapter.

 

Biology

What
are the practical skills required for biology and why do you need
them?

Before
they can embark on AS & A Level practical work with confidence,
students should be familiar with the use of a typical school laboratory. This
includes things such as balances, measuring cylinders, beakers, pipettes (or
syringes), heating apparatus and thermometers. It is also important that students
know how to work safely when carrying out practical work.

A
knowledge of basic biochemical tests such as the tests for starch, glucose,
protein and lipids is useful as these are often revisited at AS & A
Level.  There is also an assumption that students are aware of simple
tests from Cambridge IGCSE™ chemistry, such as using universal indicator paper
and testing for using limewater to test for carbon dioxide gas. These chemical
tests are often used when carrying out practicals at AS and A Level
biology.

Students
should also understand how to plan valid experiments with standardized
variables and repeats. They should also know how to draw results tables that
display data effectively. Evaluating the design of simple experiments, such as recognizing
the level of accuracy of equipment is also a useful skill to reinforce before
AS & A Level. All these skills help to provide a good foundation upon which
to build.

What
can be the main challenges for students carrying out practical work ?

For
biology experiments, results can often be unpredictable! Living organisms often
do not respond in the ways that we expect. For example, a piece of pond weed in
an investigation into the effect of light intensity, may not photosynthesis due
to several reasons. Students need to be patient, accept that all results are
valid and explore the reasons for results not being as expected. Many students
think that getting unexpected results is essentially the mark of a bad
experiment – in reality, getting the ‘wrong results’ can be a learning
experience in itself. Students should also not be scared to ‘have a go’ and be
encouraged to try again if something did not seem to work first time.

What
are your 5 top tips for students ?

1)
Be confident and keep trying even if a technique is difficult

2) Don’t expect results to always go the way you planned – remember that living
organisms can be very different to one another

3) Work safely – always wear eye protection and risk assess everything

4) Be organized – keep all your equipment tidy on your bench

5) Enjoy practical work – it is your opportunity to apply your
knowledge to the real thing

A-Level
Science Practical’s will start from Tuesday 

(15th September 2020) at
GreenHall Academy Gulberg Campus.

 

Registrations
Open.

For
Details:

GreenHall
Academy Gulberg Campus: 

  0312-5314148, 

<www.facebook.com/greenhallacademygc>

 


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Starting Date:

05 October 2020

OnCampus/Online

Autumn Session
2020

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